Chronology of Austria

Chronology of Austria

Medieval Austria
992 The name ‘Austria’ appears for the first time in a manuscript.
1192 Richard the Lion Heart is captured while returning from the Third Crusade (King’s Crusade). Austrians demand a ransom for the English king, but it was never fully paid.
1267 The Catholic Church in Vienna force all Jews to wear special distinctive clothing.
1295 The city of Trieste becomes the Imperial Free City, or Free State of Trieste.
1312 Pope Clement suppresses the Knights Templar at the Council of Vienna.
1315 Swiss soldiers destroy the invading Austrian troops in the Battle of Morgarten.
1347-50 The Black Plague (Black Death) reaches Austria, as well as many other countries. The Plague claims some 25 million lives in Europe.
1365 Duke Rudolph IV establishes the University of Vienna.
15th–17th Century Austria
1447 Construction of St Stephen’s Cathedral (Stephensdom) in Vienna is completed, and holds the tomb of Austrian born, German King Friedrich III.
1490 The province of Upper Austria establishes a new capital, the city of Linz.
1516 Charles I, a Habsburg, succeeds King Ferdinand’s throne in Spain.
1519 Charles of Spain becomes Holy Roman Emperor in Barcelona and combines the crowns of Austria, Spain, Germany and Burgundy.
1522 The Habsburg family is split into two branches: Spanish and Austrian.
1529 The Ottoman Armies siege Vienna but are defeated and forced to retreat.
1571 The Turkish Army is utterly defeated in the Battle of Lepanto.
1622 The University of Salzburg is founded.
1628 Austrian Protestants are forced to convert to Catholicism.
1683 After the Austrians defeat the Turks for the second time, cappuccino and the croissant are introduced to celebrate the victory.
1699 The war ends between Austria and the Turks.
Age of Brilliant Minds
1732 The famous Austrian composer Joseph Haydn is born.
1756 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born.
1765 The School for Healing Animal Diseases is founded by Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, which later becomes the University of Veterinary Medicine.
1777 The Vienna University Library opens.
1783 The German language officially replaces Latin in language teaching.
1787 The composer of ‘Silent Night’, Franz Xavier Gruber, is born.
1791 Mozart dies at the age of 35.
1792 The 22-year-old Ludwig Van Beethoven receives his first composition lesson by Austrian composer Joseph Haydn.
1797 Composer Franz Shubert is born.
1803 Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, founder of the Doppler Effect, is born.
1822 Gregor Johann Mendel, the botanist who created the theory of heredity, is born.
1825 Johann Strauss is born.
1856 The father of psychology, Sigmund Freud, is born.
1867 Johann Strauss’ ‘Blue Danube’ waltz is presented in Vienna.
1889 Adolf Hitler is born in Austria.
1891 Daniel Swarowski creates a machine with which crystal stones are cut to resemble diamonds.
Beginning of 20th Century
1907 The 18-year-old Hitler applies to study art in Vienna, but is rejected.
1914 The Austrian heir, Francis Ferdinand, is assassinated with his wife in Sarajevo, Bosnia, beginning the First World War.
1918 Vienna becomes capital of the Republic of Austria.
1936 Austria proclaims itself a ‘German State’
1938 By union with Germany, the Austrian Army is brought under German control.
1945 The Soviet Army liberates Vienna.
1946-47 Reconstruction of Austria begins with denazification.
Modern Day Austria
1955 Austria joins the United Nations (UN).
1995 Austria becomes a member of the European Union (EU).
1998 Pope John Paul II visits Austria.
1999 The euro is successfully launched.
2007 A nuclear meeting is held in Austria, attended by representatives of 130 countries.