Maria Theresa

The Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, this Archduchess of Austria who married Holy Roman Emperor Francis I was born in Vienna. Her father, Charles VI, guaranteed her the right to succeed to the Austrian throne after his death. In consequence, the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in 1740, as King Frederick II of Prussia didn't accept this decision. Nevertheless, Maria Theresa was the first woman to rule the Austrian Duchy, and she was even claimed to have saved the Habsburg monarchy. During her reign, overseas trade increased and the army improved. Much focus was put on education, especially middle and higher schools. Moreover, medical and legal faculties become stronger units of the University of Vienna. In terms of reforms, the Supreme Court was established and in 1753 work on the new Civil Code began. As aforementioned, Maria Theresa was married to Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, and was the mother of sixteen children, Maria Antoinette among others, as well as Joseph II, who succeeded her after her death. She is buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.